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DNSSEC Usage in Switzerland is on the rise after widespread attacks on the Domain Name System

Attacks on the DNS System

Cyber attacks on the DNS system are not new. Cache poisoning, Domain Hijacking and BGP injections of routes to public DNS resolvers happen regularly, but they usually don’t get much attention as they target the Internet’s core infrastructure and are not directly visible to end users in most cases. This time it was different. The recent widespread DNS hijacking attacks on several Mid East, North African and European and North American governments and infrastructure providers, published by Ciscos Talos showed that DNS attacks are a real threat to cyber security. Netnod, one of the affected infrastructure providers issued a statement, that called, amongst other domain security mechanisms, for the implementation of the DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC).

The analysis of these attacks also convinced the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) that there is an ongoing and significant risk to key parts of the System (DNS) infrastructure. ICANN issued a call for “Full DNSSEC Deployment to Protect the Internet” across all unsecured domain names.

The question is if  these attacks and the awareness that DNSSEC is an absolute essential base layer protection for domain names had some effects on the Implementation of DNSSEC Switzerland?

More DNSSEC signed domain names

As a ccTLD operator SWITCH publishes the number of DNSSEC signed .ch and .li domain names every month. While the number of signed domain names is still very low at around 3-4% we see a rise in the numbers of signed domain names for two years now.

DNSSEC signed .ch domain names 1.4.2019

Continue reading


The January/February 2019 issue of our SWITCH Security Report is available!

Dear Reader!

A new issue of our bi-monthly SWITCH Security Report is available!

The topics covered in this report are:

  • Company networks at serious risk: recent waves of malspam have been spreading the multifunctional trojan Emotet, targeting Windows devices in particular
  • Phishing, porn, data theft: rogue apps appearing as a new and harmful type of ‘non-sellers’ on Google Play and other app stores
  • Spy Time now also available for Apple devices – Serious security vulnerabilities allow outsiders to eavesdrop on FaceTime conversations and steal passwords from Keychain in MacOS
  • Alexa home alone, nuclear attack via Nest and a new password law in California – what happens when IoT gadgets run amok?

The Security Report is available in both English and German.

»»  Download the english report.      »»  Download the german report.

Did you miss our previous Security Report? Click here to go to the archive.


The November/December 2018 issue of our SWITCH Security Report is available!

Dear Reader!

A new issue of our bi-monthly SWITCH Security Report is available!

The topics covered in this report are:

  • SiSyPHuS gives Windows 10 low marks for data protection and security
  • Vivy app suffering from multiple diseases: security researchers uncover several vulnerabilities in the patient data app
  • Facing court: Chinese facial recognition unfairly lands big entrepreneur in hot water
  • Not exactly cuddly: data protection authority imposes first GDPR fines after hacking attack

The Security Report is available in both English and German.

»»  Download the english report.      »»  Download the german report.

Did you miss our previous Security Report? Click here to go to the archive.


The Sep/Oct 2018 issue of our SWITCH Security Report is available!

Dear Reader!

A new issue of our SWITCH Security Report has just been released.

The topics covered in this report are:

  • Turning Good instead of Breaking Bad? Hacking to fend off other hackers
  • What do a firefighter and Google Chrome 69 have in common?
  • 15 months later: new attacks, same old vulnerability
  • Peekaboo exploits vulnerability in surveillance cameras in a major way

The Security Report is available in both English and German.

»»  Download the english report.      »»  Download the german report.

Did you miss our previous Security Report? Click here to go to the archive.

 


A new issue of our SWITCH Security Report is available!

Dear Reader!

A new issue of our bi-monthly SWITCH Security Report is available!

The topics covered in this report are:

  • An own goal and serious foul: Spanish football league’s app turns 10 million users into involuntarily spies
  • Amazon Rekognition – useful security and convenience tool or total surveillance for pennies?
  • An underestimated risk: the number of malware attacks on smartphones and tablets is exploding
  • Phishing with the stars: scammers take advantage of our celebrity obsession and the crypto craze to cause harm to users

The Security Report is available in both English and German.

»»  Download the english report.      »»  Download the german report.


Top 1000 .ch Domain Names

UPDATE 19.02.2019:

From February 2019 on there will be a few small changes. A co-worker, Antoine, has discovered a flaw in the current measurement of the top 1000 .ch domain names which has been removed by now. Since we only counted the number of distinct IP addresses per domain for both IP versions, using IPv6 one can easily send queries from a whole /64 range which results in approximately 1.8*10^19 different addresses. Being a private customer of the Swiss ISP Init7 even gives you an entire /48 range. Like that you can easily push a domain name to the top! In order to prevent this from happening we will now count the distinct number of ASes per domain.

Additionally, we will provide 2 lists from now on. One that contains a ranking based on ALL queries, i.e. including queries that have returned NXDOMAIN, and one whithout those NXDOMAIN queries. Previously, we just provided the former. Continue reading


The May/June 2018 issue of our SWITCH Security Report is available!

Dear Reader!

A new issue of our bi-monthly SWITCH Security Report has just been released.

The topics covered in this report are:

  • Microsoft will never contact you by phone: support scam continues to gain momentum
  • «Efail» between hype and disaster: the security world needs to learn how to communicate
  • Sonic waves on the attack, recent incidents are reason to prick up your ears
  • Waterholing attacks: infrastructure is and remains a target

The Security Report is available in both English and German.

»»  Download the English report.      »»  Download the German report.

Did you miss our previous Security Report? Click here to go to the archive.

 


The March/April 2018 issue of our SWITCH Security Report is available!

Dear Reader!

A new issue of our bi-monthly SWITCH Security Report has just been released.

The topics covered in this report are:

  • The dark side of the Data Force: Facebook, Cambridge Analytica, and the pressing question of who is using whose data for what
  • News from the world of state trojans: Microsoft’s analysis of FinFisher
  • Russian APT28 hackers’ month-long infiltration of the computer network of Germany’s federal government
  • Bitcoin bounty or close encounter: bizarre side-effects of cryptomining

The Security Report is available in both English and German.

»»  Download the english report.      »»  Download the german report.

Did you miss our previous Security Report? Click here to go to the archive.

 


Additional DNSSEC Training with PowerDNS on May 7 and 8

We announced 3 one day DNS trainings in the end of February and all three trainings where fully booked within 24 hours. We are happy to see so much demand for DNSSEC in Switzerland.
We managed to add two more dates for the DNSSEC training together with PowerDNS
The training will be given at the following dates in Zurich:

7.5. Zurich, SWITCH
8.5. Zurich, SWITCH

The one day training will give you an introduction into DNSSEC and show you how to sign DNS zones on an autoritative DNS server.
We will use PowerDNS for the practical and hands on part. PowerDNS contains support for DNSSEC, enabling the easy serving of DNSSEC secured data, with minimal administrative overhead.

Agenda:

• Short introduction to DNSSEC
• how DNSSEC works
• keys / signatures / NSEC / NSEC3
• Working with DNSSEC and the PowerDNS Authoritative server
• Short overview over PowerDNS Authoritative server backends (MySQL, PostgreSQL, BIND, pipe, …)
• DNSSEC signing
• Pre-signed zones
• CDS
• Zone transfers
• Utilities (pdnsutil)
• The PowerDNS ALIAS record (and its future)

Required skills: Unix system administrator skills and DNS server know how.The training will be delivered in english.

More information and registration here:

https://www.eventbrite.com/e/dnssec-training-zurich-may-7-tickets-44474772241
https://www.eventbrite.com/e/dnssec-training-zurich-may-8-tickets-44474795310


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DNSSEC training with PowerDNS in Switzerland

SWITCH is organising a one day DNSSEC training together with PowerDNS

The training will be given at the following dates:

9.4. Zurich, SWITCH
10.4. Bern, Uni
11.4. Carouge HESGE

The one day training will give you an introduction into DNSSEC and show you how to sign DNS zones on an autoritative DNS server.
We will use PowerDNS for the practical and hands on part. PowerDNS contains support for DNSSEC, enabling the easy serving of DNSSEC secured data, with minimal administrative overhead.

Agenda:

• Short introduction to DNSSEC
• how DNSSEC works
• keys / signatures / NSEC / NSEC3
• Working with DNSSEC and the PowerDNS Authoritative server
• Short overview over PowerDNS Authoritative server backends (MySQL, PostgreSQL, BIND, pipe, …)
• DNSSEC signing
• Pre-signed zones
• Zone transfers
• Utilities (pdnsutil)
• The PowerDNS ALIAS record (and its future)

Required skills: Unix system administrator skills and DNS server know how.The training will be delivered in english.

More information and registration here:

Zurich: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/dnssec-training-zurich-tickets-43350331007
Bern: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/dnssec-training-bern-tickets-43592055010
Carouge: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/dnssec-training-carouge-tickets-43592840359

Update 28.2.2018: All three trainings are fully booked after only 24 hours. We are happy to see so much interest in DNSSEC in Switzerland. Waitlist is now open.


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Breaking security controls using subdomain hijacking

Users obtain a domain name to establish a unique identity on the Internet. Domain names are not only used to serve names and addresses of computers and services but also to store security controls, such as SPF or CAA records. Many of the Internet protocols were designed at a time where built-in security was not a requirement. The IETF continues to standardize protocol extensions to address today’s security needs.

For some protocols security is added with controls stored in your domain names zone file. In order to have the desired effect, the pre-condition is of course that your domain name is secure. In other words, the security of your application that makes use of controls in DNS is only as secure as the security of your domain name.

Hijacking a domain name because of weak credentials at the registrar may get the job done but this is far from stealthy and will likely not last long. In many cases it is sufficient to hijack an abandoned subdomain. Taking over abandoned subdomains may be unnoticed by the owner for a very long period of time making it also very useful for targeted attacks.

Picture 1: update.ft.com has been hijacked and the content from the ft.com front page is mirrored with a fake article about subdomain hijacking. Note: the website is not online anymore, Financial Times has been notified to remove the abandoned record from their zone file. A Certificate Transparency (CT) log proves that a TLS certificate has been issued for this demo site.

Continue reading


A new issue of our SWITCH Security Report is available!

Dear Reader!

A new issue of our bi-monthly SWITCH Security Report is available!

The topics covered in this report are:

  • Attack of the digital dolphins: hacking Alexa, Siri and their friends via ultrasound
  • The anti-antivirus programme: US government bans agencies from installing Kaspersky software on their computers
  • A hack of ‘epic proportions’ at Equifax
  • Science fiction 4.0 – how to hack a computer with a drop of saliva

The Security Report is available in both English and German.

»»  Download the english report.      »»  Download the german report.

Did you miss our previous Security Report? Click here to go to the archive.


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11th October 2017, DNSSEC key rollover of the root zone, be ready the key is here!

On the 27th September, ICANN announced the postponement for the KSK rollover. More information can be found here.

written by Yves Bovard

No, this is not a kind of secret message nor a new ice-cream. On 11th October 2017 the root zone will be signed with a new key. Ladies and gentlemen, update your DNS resolver. As of July 11th, the new key is published in the root zone and your resolver should start updating its trust anchors automatically!

Continue reading


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94 .ch & .li domain names hijacked and used for drive-by

A Swiss domain holder called us today telling us that the .ch zone points to the wrong name servers for his domain.

The NS entries were ns1.dnshost[.]ga and ns2.dnshost[.]ga. We contacted the registrar and soon realized that this is not the only domain that had unauthorized changes. We identified 93 additional .ch and .li domain names that pointed to the two rogue name servers. While domain hijacking by pointing to a rogue NS is a known attack,  94 domains on a single day is very unusual. So we analyzed what the hijacked domains were used for and soon found out that they are used to infect internet users with malware.

Visitors to the hijacked domains were redirected to the Keitaro TDS (traffic distribution system):

hXXp://46.183.219[.]227/VWcjj6

A TDS decides where to redirect the visitor to, often depending on its IP address (i.e. country),
user agent and operating system.

A dead end may look like the following:

hXXp//46.183.219[.]227/favicon.ico
hXXp://46.183.219[.]227/www.bingo.com

And the visitor will be redirected to Google.

However, in some cases, the visitor is redirected to the Rig Exploit Kit:

hXXp://188.225.87[.]223/?doctor&news=...&;money=...&cars=236&medicine=3848
hXXp://188.225.87[.]223/?health&news=...
...

And the visitor gets infected.

The payload is Neutrino Bot:

MD5: a32f3d0a71a16a461ad94c5bee695988
SHA256: 492081097c78d784be3996d3b823a660f52e0632410ffb2a2a225bd1ec60973d).

It gets in touch with its command and control server and grabs additional modules:

hXXp://poer23[.]tk/tasks.php
hXXp://poer23[.]tk/modules/nn_grabber_x32.dll
hXXp://poer23[.]tk/modules/nn_grabber_x64.dll

A little later, it also gets an update

hXXp//www.araop[.]tk/test.exe

MD5: 7c2864ce7aa0fff3f53fa191c2e63b59
SHA256: c1d60c9fff65bbd0e3156a249ad91873f1719986945f50759b3479a258969b38)

Status

The rogue NS were inserted in the .ch zone file at around 13:00 today. The registrar discovered soon what happened and rolled back the unauthorized changes. At 16:00 all of the changes in the .ch & .li zone were reverted and the NS records pointed to the legitimate name servers again.

[Update 10.7.17 17:15]

Gandi the registrar of the 94 domain names has written a blog post, as well as SCRT the domain holder that initially informed us about the domain name hijacking of scrt.ch. SCRT also showed how Strict Transport Security protected their recurring visitors from being redirected to the bogus website!


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A new issue of our SWITCH Security Report is available!

Dear Reader!

A new issue of our bi-monthly SWITCH Security Report is available!

The topics covered in this report are:

  • Plenty of tears as WannaCry encrypts unpatched systems
  • WannaCry’s siblings from the NSA toolbox
  • Keyloggers fitted as standard – HP notebooks snooping on users
  • Hakuna Metadata – the browsing goldmine
  • Unboxed and hacked – new Samsung Galaxy S8 iris scanner

The Security Report is available in both English and German.

»»  Download the english report.      »»  Download the german report.

Did you miss our previous Security Report? Click here to go to the archive.